Popular Post flyride Posted May 23, 2022 Popular Post Share #1 Posted May 23, 2022 This post was recognized by Polanskiman! flyride was awarded the badge 'Great Content' and 5 points. Loader Information and Background RedPill is the core technology that enables DSM 7.x to run on non-Synology hardware. This post is intended to serve as a definitive tutorial/reference for configuring @pocopico's TinyCore RedPill (TCRP) loader. It explains how to install TCRP on baremetal, i.e. with DSM as the only operating system on your NAS hardware. A tutorial to install TCRP using the ESXi hypervisor is located here. There are other hypervisor tutorials in the Tutorials and Guides forum. TCRP uses a two step-process. First, a Linux OS (TinyCore) boots and evaluates the NAS hardware configuration. Therefore, it is best to have the hardware you plan to use (disk controllers and network cards in particular) installed prior to starting the TCRP setup. Then, an individualized loader (RedPill) is created. This loader is used to install and run DSM. After that, you can switch between starting DSM with RedPill, and booting back into TinyCore to adjust and rebuild the loader as needed. Basic Linux command line skills are needed to complete the installation. The tutorial provides examples of the commands that are needed, but exact syntax and capitalization are critical. If unfamiliar, research and review the following minimal list of commands: ls show the files in the current directory cat <file> show the contents of the specified file pwd show the current directory name cd <directory path> change to the specified directory (same rules as Windows, except with forward slashes instead of backslashes). With no argument, it returns to the “home” TCRP directory vi <file> a file editor, for manual editing of configuration files if required Ongoing Development This tutorial is maintained for consistency with the pocopico stable repository. Since TCRP is completely open-sourced, anyone can fork their own repo and contribute to development, and pocopico now maintains a separate development repo. As the best features and ideas are fully vetted and tested, they may be incorporated into the stable repo over time. If you use a repo, script or shell other than the pocopico stable repo, the loader may behave quite differently and the instructions and troubleshooting steps in this tutorial might no longer apply. In an open-source community, you can use any development resource you want, but you add the additional responsibility of understanding, vetting and testing that code on your system. Migration Spoiler DSM 6.x (with Jun’s loader) can be migrated to DSM 7.x using TCRP. Do not attempt to upgrade from 6.x to 7.x using the Control Panel. Complete the following tasks prior to migration: Read through this reference thoroughly Remove the 6.x loader USB and array disks (making sure to mark their order) Build a TCRP loader on a new USB to practice and confirm the build process (with all the same NAS hardware that will be used for the upgrade) Trial install DSM 7.x to a test HDD/SDD Verify DSM is working perfectly with all the NAS hardware Remove the test USB and HDD/SDD, and restore the 6.x loader USB and array disks VERIFY BACKUP of all data saved elsewhere before attempting an in-place upgrade The actual migration process is simple: Remove any existing SSD cache configuration (strongly recommended) Shut down the NAS Replace the existing 6.x USB loader with the TCRP 7.x USB loader from the process above Boot the NAS and complete the DSM Migration when prompted Restore SSD cache configuration as desired NOTE: Depending on which DSM version was previously installed, the migration process may override the manual option for DSM updates and set it to automatic. Restore the manual option from Control Panel as soon as possible - it might be necessary to shutdown the Internet connection until that is complete. Step 1. Choose a DSM Platform/Architecture Evaluate your intended NAS hardware and your the intended use of DSM, and select a platform that best meets your needs. Reference information here: https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/61634-dsm-7x-loaders-and-platforms/ Write down the selected platform (e.g. DS918+), the corresponding architecture (e.g. apollolake) and whether the platform uses SataPortMap/DiskIdxMap or Device Tree for slot mapping. This information will be needed later. Now, make sure the NAS hardware is compatible, and prepare it correctly: x86-64-compatible CPU with two cores or more Each platform have maximum threads support! Any threads in excess will be ignored For certain platforms, Intel CPUs must be 4th generation “Haswell” or newer with FMA3 instruction set The corresponding AMD CPU architecture is “Piledriver” or newer AMD-based systems may require deactivation of the C1E option in the BIOS 2GB of RAM or more 2GB or larger USB flash drive Configure the BIOS to boot from the USB flash drive ONLY SATA disk controllers are preferred, but SCSI/SAS are compatible IMPORTANT: All SATA controllers must be configured to AHCI mode SATA controllers with port multipliers are not compatible ATA controllers are not compatible (disable embedded ATA in BIOS if possible) At least one SATA/SCSI/SAS drive (HDD or SSD), minimum size 21GB IMPORTANT: Enable SATA port hotplug on each disk port, if hotplug is supported by the BIOS/controller IMPORTANT: Disable M.2 SATA ports that are not in use, if supported by the BIOS/controller NVMe drives are not usable except as dedicated cache devices Host Bus Adapters are not currently compatible with Device Tree platforms Install any NVMe drives intended as cache devices On Device Tree platforms, NVMe drives must be installed prior to loader installation in order for them to be recognized Step 2. Download TCRP and Write Image to the USB Flash Drive The latest pocopico stable loader code is always linked here: https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/7848-links-to-loaders/ Download the tinycore-redpill 7.x loader and save it to your personal computer. Then, open it with a zip manager to show the boot images: tinycore-redpill.vX.X.X.img.gz (for BIOS/CSM/Legacy boot from USB flash drive) tinycore-redpill-uefi.vX.X.X.img.gz (for UEFI/EFI boot from USB flash drive) tinycore-redpill.vX.X.X.vmdk.gz (for virtual machine SATABOOT from disk image) Select the boot image that matches the boot capability of the NAS motherboard. If unsure, choose BIOS/CSM/Legacy boot. Save the gzip file to your personal computer, then open it with a zip archive manager and save the uncompressed version. Write the uncompressed image to the USB flash drive using Win32DiskImager or other appropriate tool. The USB flash drive is used to store TinyCore and the RedPill loader that it generates. It is a permanent component of an operational XPEnology system. Do not remove it, even after the DSM installation is complete and the NAS is fully up and running. Step 3. Boot into TinyCore and Complete Pre-Configuration Updates Start your NAS with the USB flash drive installed and TinyCore will boot. Then, launch a command-line session with either of these methods: Click the Terminal icon at the bottom right of the TinyCore desktop to launch a console window Use a ssh client (e.g. PuTTY) on your computer to connect a network-based console Consult your DHCP server/router for the IP address assignment (TinyCore's host name is "box") Login credentials: tc/P@ssw0rd When the Linux command line prompt ($) is displayed, update the TCRP script ./rploader.sh update Checking Internet Access -> OK Checking if a newer version exists -> There is a newer version on the repo should we use that ? [yY/nN] Y OK, updating, please re-run after updating Updating tinycore loader with latest updates Backing up files to /mnt/sda3//mydata.tgz Then, update the TCRP support files ./rploader.sh fullupgrade <downloads snipped> Current /home/tc size is 114M , try to keep it less than 1GB as it might not fit into your image Should i update the sda with your current files [Yy/Nn] Y Backing up home files to sda : Backing up files to /mnt/sda3//mydata.tgz Finally, choose a DSM release number Each DSM build as provided by Synology has a release number. You can display the combinations of platforms and releases supported by TCRP by just running the script with no arguments ./rploader.sh <command help snipped> Available platform versions: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- apollolake-7.0-41890 apollolake-7.0.1-42218 apollolake-7.1.0-42661 broadwell-7.0.1-42218 broadwell-7.1.0-42661 broadwellnk-7.0.1-42218 broadwellnk-7.1.0-42661 bromolow-7.0.1-42218 bromolow-7.1.0-42661 denverton-7.0.1-42218 denverton-7.1.0-42661 geminilake-7.0.1-42218 geminilake-7.1.0-42661 v1000-7.0.1-42218 v1000-7.1.0-42661 Step 4. Configure System-Specific Parameters Custom system parameters are stored in the user_config.json file. This can be manually edited, or TCRP can help determine appropriate values for the hardware. USB flash drive VID/PID: TCRP can query the USB flash drive for the hardware vid/pid values that DSM uses to identify the loader during bootup ./rploader.sh identifyusb Found: Superdisk Flash SerialNumber: 123456 Vendor ID: 0x1234 Product ID: 0x0001 Should i update the user_config.json with these values ? [Yy/Nn] Y Serial number/MAC: TCRP can automatically generate a serial number for the platform selected in step 1. Additionally, it will generate a random MAC address for the NAS network card. If you prefer to use the actual hardware MAC address instead, append "realmac" to the command. Example 1: random MAC address ./rploader.sh serialgen DS3622xs+ Serial Number for Model : 20C0SQRLR47QM Mac Address for Model DS3622xs+ : 00:11:32:80:B2:36 Should i update the user_config.json with these values ? [Yy/Nn] Y Example 2: real MAC address ./rploader.sh serialgen DS3622xs+ realmac Serial Number for Model : 2150SQRGS7N5T Mac Address for Model DS3622xs+ : 00:11:32:57:3A:9B Real Mac Address : 00:0C:24:62:3E:3D Notice : realmac option is requested, real mac will be used Should i update the user_config.json with these values ? [Yy/Nn] Y Drive Slot Mapping: TCRP can try to determine how to map the NAS disk controller ports to DSM slots. If the chosen platform uses SataPortMap/DiskIdxMap for port mapping, the command below will do this. If it uses Device Tree for slot mapping, the command may be skipped, as the Device Tree is configured automatically during the loader build. ./rploader.sh satamap Found "02:02.0 SATA AHCI controller" Detected 4 ports/2 drives. Override # of ports or ENTER to accept: <4> Recommended settings: SataPortMap=4 DiskIdxMap=00 Should I update the user_config with these values ? [Yy/Nn] Y If the port count is not what you expect, it may be due to the motherboard design servicing physical ports with multiple controllers, or because of M.2 SATA slot support. If necessary, the port count can be overridden with whatever you like. NOTE: If you see a WARNING message, it is certain that either some of your drives are inaccessible or the DSM install will encounter problems. Evaluate and investigate the issue. The satamap command can be rerun as many times as needed to understand the system. Manual Review: With prior loaders (such as Jun's), the configuration of these parameters was completely manual. There is no single setup that works for all hardware. Even after using the tools above, please review and verify the parameters, understand what they do, and manually edit if needed. Whatever changes rploader.sh makes to the user_config.json file can be reviewed by displaying the file contents cat user_config.json and overridden by editing the file vi user_config.json You can also add a simpler editor, nano tce-load -iw nano nano user_config.json And there is also a graphical editor accessible from the TinyCore desktop Step 5. Optional: Manually Add Driver Extensions While TCRP can automatically add drivers based on the detected NAS hardware, it isn’t foolproof. You might want to build a loader for a device you don’t actually have yet. And there are features that are "opt-in" only. So, a process exists to manually add drivers and other functionality. Extensions are stored in repositories hosted on the web. All the extensions in the main repository are viewable here: https://github.com/pocopico/rp-ext To list all the extensions recommended by TCRP's hardware detection algorithm, use ./rploader.sh listmods <architecture>-<version>-<DSMreleasenumber> ./rploader.sh listmods apollolake-7.1.0-42661 To add a specific extension, choose from the list and reference the architecture from Step 1. ./rploader.sh ext <architecture>-<version>-<DSMreleasenumber> <extensionurl> ./rploader.sh ext apollolake-7.1.0-42661 add https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pocopico/rp-ext/master/redpill-acpid/rpext-index.json ./rploader.sh ext denverton-7.1.0-42661 add https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pocopico/rp-ext/master/v9fs/rpext-index.json The examples illustrate adding ACPI and VIRTIO support. These are often chosen enhancements to a basic installation. Step 6. Build the Loader When all preparation steps are complete, build the loader using the command structure ./rploader.sh build <architecture>-<version>-<DSMreleasenumber> Example #1: DS3622xs+, auto detect hardware ./rploader.sh build broadwellnk-7.1.0-42661 Example #2: DS918+, use preselected drivers ./rploader.sh build apollolake-7.1.0-42661 manual TCRP will download resources from the Internet to complete the complex process of the loader build. When finished, it will write it to the USB flash drive and add new items to the GRUB boot menu. Review the output for any errors and make corrections if necessary. Step 7. Optional Backup Tasks Save the TinyCore configuration state as the default, so that the next boot of TInyCore starts with all your settings ./rploader.sh backup Back up the generated RedPill loader partition to available space on the USB flash drive ./rploader.sh backuploader Step 8: Restart and Boot DSM Using the Grub USB Option Cleanly shutdown and reboot with the TinyCore command exitcheck.sh reboot First, the GRUB Menu is displayed. If necessary, use the arrow keys to ensure that USB is selected and press ENTER. The loader will show some initialization information and silently boot DSM. Nothing else will be displayed unless a serial console is attached (see the Troubleshooting section below). Wait a few minutes, then launch either https://find.synology.com or the Synology Assistant desktop utility. If the loader is working properly, a new "SynologyNAS" will be displayed as Not installed (for a new build) or the name of your existing Migratable NAS (if upgrading from a previous version). Use your browser to connect to the NAS. If "Something went wrong" is displayed, jump to the Basic Troubleshooting section below. Otherwise, browse to the Synology Download Center and download the DSM install PAT file that matches the platform and release number specified in the loader build. Do not use the PAT file stored in TinyCore. It has modifications that are incompatible with DSM installation. However, its name may help identify the correct PAT file to download below. There can be several files that appear to be candidates. PAT files marked VirtualDSM will not work. Also there can be patch PAT files with the same numbering. These will not work and will usually be smaller than 50MB. The correct PAT file is 300MB or larger. Once the correct DSM PAT file is saved to your personal computer, upload it to the NAS. Follow the prompts to complete the installation. FOR UPGRADES ONLY: If Synology Assistant shows Not installed, or if prompted to erase the disks during the upgrade, STOP! Some or all of your array disks are not visible to DSM. This must be resolved via troubleshooting and reconfiguration before installing DSM 7.x. IMPORTANT: During the install, always select DSM manual updates. If a new install completes normally, but then fails after the reboot, it may be that DSM has attempted to auto-update itself with incompatible code. Basic Troubleshooting Spoiler Typical Problems: If the DSM installation reports something went wrong/SATA ports disabled, or if WARNING: Bad port is returned by the TCRP configuration tools, there are three primary causes: hotplug not enabled for all ports on controllers that support hotplug ports supported by the chipset but omitted from the motherboard physical implementation M.2 SATA-capable ports that have no hotplug option enabled Consider these workarounds/solutions: enable hotplug on all ports install SATA drives on all ports (including M.2 SATA ports) disable M.2 SATA ports in the BIOS (if the option exists) reduce SataPortMap port count to exclude unimplemented or M.2 SATA ports (this only works IF they are not the first ports on the controller) install a different SATA controller and disable the onboard one virtualize the DSM installation, possibly in concert with one of the above options change the DSM platform to one that uses Device Tree (which can address only the good ports, leaving out the bad) choose another motherboard which does not exhibit the causal issues A loader or SATA controller configuration that disables valid ports in order to install DSM can be updated to enable those ports once the DSM installation is complete. If the DSM installation reports that no drives are available, use the serial or TCRP console described below to help investigate the problem If unable to locate the new SynologyNAS using Synology Assistant, either the loader has kernel panicked, or the network is not functioning (usually because of a missing or incompatible network driver, or no accessible DHCP server). The only way to verify the specific cause is to use a serial console. Using the Serial Console for Troubleshooting This involves configuring a physical serial port from the NAS hardware to your personal computer and using a terminal emulation program for access. The serial console is also mirrored to a special TCRP network console. If the network is functioning (i.e. you can see the IP in Synology Assistant), it can be accessed via a browser at https://<DSM IP>:7681 If DSM has not been installed, "SynologyNAS login:" will be displayed. If DSM has been installed but cannot start, "DiskStation login:" will be displayed. This is Junior mode. You can log in with root (you won't be prompted for a password). If desired, the reason that Junior mode was started can be displayed with cat /var/log/junior_mode Disk port shutdown errors and missing disks are usually a SataPortMap/DiskIdxMap/Device Tree problem, but can be a driver issue if using SCSI or SAS host bus adapters. If SATA disks are missing, investigate DSM’s view of SataPortMap/DiskIdxMap and some other user_config.json parameters by typing cat /proc/cmdline If the loader device "/dev/synoboot" is not returned by the following command, the identifyusb step of the install may have been skipped ls /dev/synoboot Inspect DSM's view of the accessible disk devices with ls –la /sys/block If using a Device Tree platform, display the contents of the device tree with dtc –I dtb -O dts /var/run/model.dtb Where to Post for Help It’s easy for requests for installation help to get lost in various unrelated forum threads. Post requests for help as a new topic in the DSM Installation Forum. At a minimum, state the hardware configuration, selected platform, DSM version, user_config.json information (delete or redact the serial number and configured MAC address) and any information from debugging analysis that you have done. DON’T post general requests for help on this thread. Please DON’T post general requests for help on TCRP or RedPill development threads unless providing feedback on a dev issue. Spoiler 2022-Jun-03 added disabled SATA port troubleshooting, removed some satamap complex description 2022-May-31 added restoresession argument 16 21 Quote Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...
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