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***For experienced individuals comfortable with synology and linux command line, I take no responsibility for any issues encountered*** ***Read fully before considering*** Please read all necessary documentation for setting up Xpenology before reading this guide. Try the start-here guides below: https://xpenology.com/forum/forum/83-faq-start-here/ This guide docuements the process of using Linux to modify the synoboot.img for your environment and writing to a usb hard drive. Additonally, this guide shows the upgrade process from 6.1.7 to 6.2.2 with extra drivers (extra.lzma file), your use case my not have the same requirements, so please make you know the process for your environment regardless of the directions shown here. Collect required files ***this guide is using synology model 3617, adjust accordingly for the model you want to use*** Recommended to save your files to a unique folder on your system, in this example we will use folder "xpenology-3716-20200215" (model and timestamp) Download the 6.2 boot loader from this post: https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/12952-dsm-62-loader/ Downloaded extra drivers files from this post (this post also includes links to the synology pat file as well): ***Extra Drivers are only needed if your devices are not supported by the current boot loader files*** https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/21663-driver-extension-jun-103b104b-for-dsm622-for-3615xs-3617xs-918/ Download the synology pat file (from the post above) Extact files for modifications Extract synoboot zip file unzip synoboot_3617.zip -d synoboot Extract extra drivers zip file unzip extra3517_v0.5_test.zip -d extra_lzma Extract Synology DSM pat file ***Requires 7zip*** Install 7zip for your linux distribution (example shown is Ubuntu) sudo apt install p7zip-full p7zip-rar Use 7zip to extract pat file 7z -odsm x DSM_DS3617xs_24922.pat Your folder should now have 3 new folders within as shown ls -1 Output: dsm <--- new folder DSM_DS3617xs_24922.pat extra3617_v0.5_test.zip extra_lzma <--- new folder synoboot <--- new folder synoboot_3617.zip Create mount folders to modify synoboot.img files make these folders to mount the partitions of the synoboot.img for editing mkdir usb mkdir usb/part1 mkdir usb/part2 mkdir usb/part3 Mount synoboot.img partitions First view the partition layout of the synoboot.img for mounting information fdisk -l synoboot/ds3617_6.2/synoboot.img Output: Disk synoboot/ds3617_6.2/synoboot.img: 50 MiB, 52428800 bytes, 102400 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disklabel type: gpt Disk identifier: B3CAAA25-3CA1-48FA-A5B6-105ADDE4793F Device Start End Sectors Size Type synoboot/ds3617_6.2/synoboot.img1 2048 32767 30720 15M EFI System synoboot/ds3617_6.2/synoboot.img2 32768 94207 61440 30M Linux filesystem synoboot/ds3617_6.2/synoboot.img3 94208 102366 8159 4M BIOS boot Important mounting information Units byte size: here its 512 bytes Start byte for each partition: to mount these partitions you need to multiply the start byte by the unit byte size for the offset Mount partition 1 (we use bash arithmetic expansion to multiple the offset) sudo mount -o loop,offset=$((512*2048)) synoboot/ds3617_6.2/synoboot.img usb/part1 Mount partition 2 sudo mount -o loop,offset=$((512*32768)) synoboot/ds3617_6.2/synoboot.img usb/part2 Mount partition 3 ***This partition does not get modified and does not need to be mounted, but shown for those interested in looking at the contents*** sudo mount -o loop,offset=$((512*94208)) synoboot/ds3617_6.2/synoboot.img usb/part3 Collect required hardware information for modifying grub.cfg in partition 1 Get USB vid/pid information ***Run this command before plugging in your usb drive*** lsusb Output: Bus 002 Device 002: ID 8087:0024 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 001 Device 003: ID 1bcf:2c07 Sunplus Innovation Technology Inc. Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0024 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Plugin your USB drive and run lsusb again to see the new device (comparing the two outputs makes this easier to know which drive is the USB) Output: Bus 002 Device 009: ID 0781:5583 SanDisk Corp. <--- new drive Bus 002 Device 002: ID 8087:0024 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 001 Device 003: ID 1bcf:2c07 Sunplus Innovation Technology Inc. Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0024 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Our USB VID is 0781 Our USB PID is 5583 Get Network Interface Card (NIC) MAC address Find MAC address of NIC on your synology device (can be found in bios, use a bootable usb linux distribution, or physical nic mac information on card label if available) Our MAC was in the bios of our motherboard, it is 90:2B:34:AC:9F:C4 If you have access to your device through cli you can use ifconfig to find the MAC address as well Get Synology Serial Number Generate a serial number for the model being used or use existing if your device is being upgraded (https://xpenogen.github.io/serial_generator/index.html) Our Serial Generated is 1130ODN024917 (Note these are not official synology serial numbers) We will use these values for modifying grub.cfg on partition 1 Modify grub.cfg on partition 1 ***VIM is the editor used to modify files, please ensure you are familiar with the editor you choose*** Edit grub.cfg sudo vi usb/part1/grub/grub.cfg Modify the following lines (Shift+i to go into insert mode in VIM) set vid=0x0781 <--- Our VID found earlier set pid=0x5583 <--- Our PID found earlier set sn=1330NZN022235 <--- Our Serial Number generated earlier set mac1=902B34AC9FC4 <--- Our NIC MAC address found earlier ***You may want to modify SataPortMap for your environment and timeout if you want a faster boot time when grub loads*** Save changes (Hit escape a few times) :wq (write and quit) Add extra driver files (optional) to partition 2 ***Only needed if you require extra drivers*** List current files in partition 2 to view permissions and ownership ls -la usb/part2/ Output: total 11068 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 16384 Dec 31 1969 ./ drwxrwxr-x 3 user user 4096 Feb 16 09:46 ../ -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1860613 Aug 1 2018 extra.lzma* -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6441636 Aug 1 2018 rd.gz* -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3006864 Aug 1 2018 zImage* Copy extra.lzma file to partition 2 sudo cp extra_lzma/extra.lzma usb/part2/ sudo cp dsm/rd.gz usb/part2/ sudo cp dsm/zImage usb/part2/ List files in partition 2 to view permissions and ownership after copy ls -la usb/part2/ Output: total 13748 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 16384 Dec 31 1969 ./ drwxrwxr-x 3 user user 4096 Feb 16 09:46 ../ -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4570532 Feb 16 09:55 extra.lzma* -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6465192 Feb 16 09:58 rd.gz* -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3019392 Feb 16 09:58 zImage* Each file should retain root ownership and permissions, the files copied should have a different size and date stamp Unmount partitions sudo umount usb/part1/ sudo umount usb/part2/ sudo umount usb/part3/ confirm each partition is unmounted ls -la usb/part1/ ls -la usb/part2/ ls -la usb/part3/ Output: total 8 drwxrwxr-x 2 user user 4096 Feb 16 09:46 ./ drwxrwxr-x 3 user user 4096 Feb 16 09:46 ../ Find USB device name Ensure USB drive is unplugged ls -1 /dev/sd* Output: /dev/sda /dev/sda1 This shows the existing storage devices, sda is the drive (my laptop root hdd), sda1 is the first partition Plug in your USB drive ls -1 /dev/sd* Output: /dev/sda /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdb3 You may not see the same partitions, but you want to see the additional device (sdb) showing Format USB drive ***Please backup any data you want to retain from this drive, as it will be lost*** ***Commands shown here are potentially dangerous, make sure you know the correct drives to format and double check your syntax (or use an alternative tool within your comfort level)*** Unmount any partitions that may have auto mounted (example shown here attempts to unmount any drives listed for the USB drive device sdb) sudo umount /dev/sdb1 sudo umount /dev/sdb2 sudo umount /dev/sdb3 Wipe all filesystems off existing drive sudo wipefs --all /dev/sdb Output: /dev/sdb: 8 bytes were erased at offset 0x00000200 (gpt): 45 46 49 20 50 41 52 54 /dev/sdb: 8 bytes were erased at offset 0xe51fffe00 (gpt): 45 46 49 20 50 41 52 54 /dev/sdb: 2 bytes were erased at offset 0x000001fe (PMBR): 55 aa /dev/sdb: calling ioctl to re-read partition table: Success Check USB drive layout sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdb Output: Disk /dev/sdb: 57.3 GiB, 61505273856 bytes, 120127488 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Confirm clean output without any partitions remaining Write Synoboot Image to USB drive ***Commands shown here are potentially dangerous, make sure you know the correct drives to write to and double check your syntax*** sudo dd if=synoboot/ds3617_6.2/synoboot.img of=/dev/sdb bs=512 Output: 102400+0 records in 102400+0 records out 52428800 bytes (52 MB, 50 MiB) copied, 9.14248 s, 5.7 MB/s Check drive and partition information to ensure it was written correctly sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdb Output: GPT PMBR size mismatch (102399 != 120127487) will be corrected by w(rite). <--- this can be ignored, it alerts because fdisk does not support GPT partitions Disk /dev/sdb: 57.3 GiB, 61505273856 bytes, 120127488 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disklabel type: gpt Disk identifier: B3CAAA25-3CA1-48FA-A5B6-105ADDE4793F Device Start End Sectors Size Type /dev/sdb1 2048 32767 30720 15M EFI System /dev/sdb2 32768 94207 61440 30M Linux filesystem /dev/sdb3 94208 102366 8159 4M BIOS boot Unmount and plug into your Xpenology device sudo umount /dev/sdb1 sudo umount /dev/sdb2 sudo umount /dev/sdb3 Last minute changes after write You can still make changes to the paritions/files on the USB drive by mounting the partition on your system sudo mount /dev/sdb1 usb/part1 sudo mount /dev/sdb2 usb/part2 sudo mount /dev/sdb3 usb/part3 This mounts the usb drive directly to the folder specified, you can edit files as per previous steps in the guide
Hi all, I'm trying to setup a server. I have connected my usb and power on the computer. I can see the balck screen which shows that all is OK but when I run the assistan from other computer, I can't see the diskstation and if I go into muy router, I don't see the computer connected. I have a motherboard AsRock 775-Dual Vsta with a VIA PHY VT6103 ethernet. Could the problem be an incopatibility with this card?
So, here we go: another Noobie, another set of questions! First: I'm so grateful people are doing this XPEnology thing, this is just great. Great for user having leftover hardware or can not afford Synology Hardware. Also great for Synology promoting their Software, maybe gathering future DS users. Thanks. Thanks a lot! *deep and slow bow* Now to me: Quite normal PC user, Gamer, having build silent/watercooled PCs for over 15 years, nothing fancy, still fascinated by PC Hardware, although now getting a bit tired of the hobby. Always more Hardware than Software Guy. English is not my native tongue, so please excuse any glitches in my writing. My Hardware: I'm runnning a HP N54L since a few years, 4 disks as of now (2x2GB + 2x3GB slow eco HDDs, non NAS, both couples as Raid1 for redundancy), 8GB ECC RAM and the Intel Gigabit NIC (is that right? NIC? the networkcard?), upgraded with a fanless power supply and a slowed down Noiseblocker 140mm Fan. For a while running Windows Home Server 2011, than switched to FreeNAS. Ever since I feel FreeNAS is not really what I'd call accessible. FreeNAS gave me quite a lot trouble with access rights and is hard to master when you only access it once or twice a year for checkup or when something is wrong. Hence my intention to use DSM. I only need a stable NAS to backup all PC in the household via Acronis, store a few things and have kind of a shared or exchange folder. No streaming, no multimedia, no cloud or anything else. (Maybe a mail server in the future... if feasable) I just need NAS in it's purest form, no bells and whistles, easily handled and stable. So, this weekend I'm gonna give it a try and have some questions beforehand. Of course I'd like somebody to take my hand and guide me through everything, taylored to my specific case, but I'm not gonna get that. It's ridiculous, I know that. So I just would like to ask you guys if got everything right so far, ok? So could someone please confirm or answer to the following: There are obviously 2 ways to get DSM on any hardware: having a VM in which it runs (that's this EXSI thingy, right?), basically emulating suitable hardware, emulating a Synology DS? having a simple Bootloader running from USB stick, which just makes DSM start on non Synology Hardware, you called that "bare metal", right? This thing provides the drivers needed for the "Alien Hardware", correct? I'd like to go for the "bare metal" solution, as VM is overkill for me, so this Bootloader would start DSM, which is installed on my Drive array. Is there any way to have DSM not on the Drive array but on, say a little SSD or 2.5" HDD? Does that would even make any sense? Performance wise? Or for the integrity of the Data on the array? The N54L is obviously very commonly used with XPEnology but seemed to have trouble getting the latest DSM versions and with the WPA/WPA2 breach I'd like to make sure that it's possible to update to the latest version as Synology just fixed the issue (like 2 Days or so ago) --> I've seen people confirming latest update on N54L, but how? Which loader are they using? The N54L had no Wake on LAN, hence I bought the Intel NIC which added that but never got it working under FreeNAS. There is the compplexity of FreeNAS again... gave up, NAS was always on ever since. Is Wake on LAN possible with DSM and the onboard LAN? Do I still need the Intel NIC? Will my N54L finally work like supposed to concerning going to sleep and wake up if there is Network activity? What happens when the DSM gets somehow corrupted? Is all Data lost or can it be extracted after DSM reinstall? It's certainly not as handy as a Windows PC after crash, where the data would still be available if plugged in another system, or is it? Does the hardware of the N54L provide any benefit over the rather lowish Hardware of the Synology DSs available to by? Or is it a waste? Thinking of buying a proper DS in the future and selling the N54L, lowering space and energy usage Finally: I've heared of encryption in the commercial talk of synology. Is that done via the DSM software or rather a hardware feature of their processors used? Hence: is encryption available for XPEnology users? Oh and were to get the latest Bootloader & XPEnology version for the N54L? I can certainly find something but whats the best / most trusted source in your opinion? I guess these are my most pressing questions, no doubt to be followed up by some more if installation is not a breeze like in all the youtube tutorials. And it never is, is it? Thanks in advance for any answers, looking forward to make use of the community power here! Cheers, Myrixamophit